Apple is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services. Its hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, and the Apple TV digital media player. Apple’s consumer software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites. Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, Apple Music, and iCloud.
Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell personal computers.[6] It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, and was renamed as Apple Inc. in January 2007 to reflect its shifted focus toward consumer electronics. Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL) joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average in March 2015.[7]
Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue, the world’s largest technology company by total assets,[8] and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer.[9] In November 2014, in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, Apple became the first U.S. company to be valued at over US$700 billion.[10] The company employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015[4] and maintains 478 retail stores in seventeen countries as of March 2016.[1] It operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world’s largest music retailer. There are over one billion actively used Apple products worldwide as of March 2016.[11]
Apple’s worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015.[3] This revenue generation accounts for approximately 1.25% of the total United States GDP.[12] The company enjoys a high level of brand loyalty and, according to Interbrand’s annual Best Global Brands report, has been the world’s most valuable brand for 4 years in a row,[13][14][15] with a valuation in 2016 of $178.1 billion.[16] The corporation receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials.


Sushi (すし, 寿司, 鮨?) is the Japanese preparation and serving of cooked vinegared rice (鮨飯 sushi-meshi) combined with varied ingredients (ネタ neta), chiefly seafood, vegetables, meat, and occasionally tropical fruits. Styles of sushi and its presentation vary widely, but the key ingredient in all cases is the rice, also referred to as shari (しゃり) or sumeshi (酢飯).
Sushi can be prepared with either brown or white rice. It is often prepared with raw seafood, but some common varieties of sushi use cooked ingredients, and many other sorts are vegetarian. Sushi is often served with pickled ginger, wasabi, and soy sauce. Daikon radish is popular as a garnish.
Sushi is often confused with sashimi, a related Japanese dish consisted of thinly sliced raw meat or fish and an optional serving of rice.

Bill gates 

William Henry “Bill” Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, entrepreneur, investor, author, and philanthropist.[2][3] In 1975, he and Paul Allen co-founded Microsoft, which became the world’s largest PC software company. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of chairman, CEO and chief software architect, and was the largest individual shareholder until May 2014.[4][a] Gates has authored and co-authored several books.

Since 1987, Gates has been included in the Forbes list of the world’s wealthiest people[7] and was the wealthiest from 1995 to 2007, again in 2009, and has been since 2014.[8] Between 2009 and 2014, his wealth doubled from US$40 billion to more than US$82 billion.[9] Between 2013 and 2014, his wealth increased by US$15 billion.[10] Gates is currently the richest person in the world, with an estimated net worth of US$84 billion as of December 2016.[11]
Gates is one of the best-known entrepreneurs of the personal computer revolution. He has been criticized for his business tactics, which have been considered anti-competitive, an opinion that has in some cases been upheld by numerous court rulings.[12] Later in his career, Gates pursued a number of philanthropic endeavors, donating large amounts of money to various charitable organizations and scientific research programs through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, established in 2000.
Gates stepped down as chief executive officer of Microsoft in January 2000. He remained as chairman and created the position of chief software architect for himself.[13] In June 2006, Gates announced that he would be transitioning from full-time work at Microsoft to part-time work, and full-time work at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.[14] He gradually transferred his duties to Ray Ozzie and Craig Mundie.[15] He stepped down as chairman of Microsoft in February 2014, taking on a new post as technology adviser to support the then newly appointed CEO Satya Nadella.[16].

Gates was born in Seattle, Washington on October 28, 1955. He is the son of William H. Gates Sr.[b] (1925–) and Mary Maxwell Gates (1931–1994). His ancestry includes English, German, Irish, and Scots-Irish.[17][18] His father was a prominent lawyer, and his mother served on the board of directors for First Interstate BancSystem and the United Way. Gates’ maternal grandfather was JW Maxwell, a national bank president. Gates has one elder sister, Kristi (Kristianne), and one younger sister, Libby. He was the fourth of his name in his family, but was known as William Gates III or “Trey” because his father had the “II” suffix.[19] Early on in his life, Gates’ parents had a law career in mind for him.[20] When Gates was young, his family regularly attended a church of the Congregational Christian Churches, a Protestant Reformed denomination.[21][22][23] The family encouraged competition; one visitor reported that “it didn’t matter whether it was hearts or pickleball or swimming to the dock … there was always a reward for winning and there was always a penalty for losing”.[24]

The Poker Room in Currier House at Harvard College

At 13, he enrolled in the Lakeside School, a private preparatory school.[25] When he was in the eighth grade, the Mothers Club at the school used proceeds from Lakeside School’s rummage sale to buy a Teletype Model 33 ASR terminal and a block of computer time on a General Electric (GE) computer for the school’s students.[26] Gates took an interest in programming the GE system in BASIC, and was excused from math classes to pursue his interest. He wrote his first computer program on this machine: an implementation of tic-tac-toe that allowed users to play games against the computer. Gates was fascinated by the machine and how it would always execute software code perfectly. When he reflected back on that moment, he said, “There was just something neat about the machine.”[27] After the Mothers Club donation was exhausted, he and other students sought time on systems including DEC PDP minicomputers. One of these systems was a PDP-10 belonging to Computer Center Corporation (CCC), which banned four Lakeside students – Gates, Paul Allen, Ric Weiland, and Kent Evans – for the summer after it caught them exploiting bugs in the operating system to obtain free computer time.[28][29]
At the end of the ban, the four students offered to find bugs in CCC’s software in exchange for computer time. Rather than use the system via Teletype, Gates went to CCC’s offices and studied source code for various programs that ran on the system, including programs in Fortran, Lisp, and machine language. The arrangement with CCC continued until 1970, when the company went out of business. The following year, Information Sciences, Inc. hired the four Lakeside students to write a payroll program in Cobol, providing them computer time and royalties. After his administrators became aware of his programming abilities, Gates wrote the school’s computer program to schedule students in classes. He modified the code so that he was placed in classes with “a disproportionate number of interesting girls.”[30] He later stated that “it was hard to tear myself away from a machine at which I could so unambiguously demonstrate success.”[27] At age 17, Gates formed a venture with Allen, called Traf-O-Data, to make traffic counters based on the Intel 8008 processor.[31] In early 1973, Bill Gates served as a congressional page in the U.S. House of Representatives.[32]
Gates graduated from Lakeside School in 1973, and was a National Merit Scholar.[33] He scored 1590 out of 1600 on the Scholastic Aptitude Tests[34] and enrolled at Harvard College in the autumn of 1973.[35] He chose a pre-law major but took rigorous mathematics and graduate level computer science courses.[36] While at Harvard, he met fellow student Steve Ballmer. Gates left Harvard after two years while Ballmer would stay and graduate magna cum laude. Years later, Ballmer succeeded Gates as CEO of Microsoft before resigning from the company in 2014.[37]
In his second year, Gates devised an algorithm for pancake sorting as a solution to one of a series of unsolved problems[38] presented in a combinatorics class by Harry Lewis, one of his professors. Gates’ solution held the record as the fastest version for over thirty years;[38][39] its successor is faster by only one percent.[38] His solution was later formalized in a published paper in collaboration with Harvard computer scientist Christos Papadimitriou.[40]
Gates did not have a definite study plan while a student at Harvard[41] and spent a lot of time using the school’s computers. Gates remained in contact with Paul Allen, and he joined him at Honeywell during the summer of 1974.[42] The following year saw the release of the MITS Altair 8800 based on the Intel 8080 CPU, and Gates and Allen saw this as the opportunity to start their own computer software company.[43] Gates dropped out of Harvard at this time. He had talked this decision over with his parents, who were supportive of him after seeing how much Gates wanted to start his own company.[41].

After reading the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics that demonstrated the Altair 8800, Gates contacted Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS), the creators of the new microcomputer, to inform them that he and others were working on a BASIC interpreter for the platform.[44] In reality, Gates and Allen did not have an Altair and had not written code for it; they merely wanted to gauge MITS’s interest. MITS president Ed Roberts agreed to meet them for a demo, and over the course of a few weeks they developed an Altair emulator that ran on a minicomputer, and then the BASIC interpreter. The demonstration, held at MITS’s offices in Albuquerque, was a success and resulted in a deal with MITS to distribute the interpreter as Altair BASIC. Paul Allen was hired into MITS,[45] and Gates took a leave of absence from Harvard to work with Allen at MITS in Albuquerque in November 1975. They named their partnership “Micro-Soft” and had their first office located in Albuquerque.[45] Within a year, the hyphen was dropped, and on November 26, 1976, the trade name “Microsoft” was registered with the Office of the Secretary of the State of New Mexico.[45] Gates never returned to Harvard to complete his studies.
Microsoft’s Altair BASIC was popular with computer hobbyists, but Gates discovered that a pre-market copy had leaked into the community and was being widely copied and distributed. In February 1976, Gates wrote an Open Letter to Hobbyists in the MITS newsletter in which he asserted that more than 90% of the users of Microsoft Altair BASIC had not paid Microsoft for it and by doing so the Altair “hobby market” was in danger of eliminating the incentive for any professional developers to produce, distribute, and maintain high-quality software.[46] This letter was unpopular with many computer hobbyists, but Gates persisted in his belief that software developers should be able to demand payment. Microsoft became independent of MITS in late 1976, and it continued to develop programming language software for various systems.[45] The company moved from Albuquerque to its new home in Bellevue, Washington, on January 1, 1979.[44]
During Microsoft’s early years, all employees had broad responsibility for the company’s business. Gates oversaw the business details, but continued to write code as well. In the first five years, Gates personally reviewed every line of code the company shipped, and often rewrote parts of it as he saw fit.[47]
IBM partnership

IBM approached Microsoft in July 1980 regarding its upcoming personal computer, the IBM PC.[48] The computer company first proposed that Microsoft write the BASIC interpreter. When IBM’s representatives mentioned that they needed an operating system, Gates referred them to Digital Research (DRI), makers of the widely used CP/M operating system.[49] IBM’s discussions with Digital Research went poorly, and they did not reach a licensing agreement. IBM representative Jack Sams mentioned the licensing difficulties during a subsequent meeting with Gates and told him to get an acceptable operating system. A few weeks later, Gates proposed using 86-DOS (QDOS), an operating system similar to CP/M that Tim Paterson of Seattle Computer Products (SCP) had made for hardware similar to the PC. Microsoft made a deal with SCP to become the exclusive licensing agent, and later the full owner, of 86-DOS. After adapting the operating system for the PC, Microsoft delivered it to IBM as PC DOS in exchange for a one-time fee of $50,000.[50]
Gates did not offer to transfer the copyright on the operating system, because he believed that other hardware vendors would clone IBM’s system.[50] They did, and the sales of MS-DOS made Microsoft a major player in the industry.[51] Despite IBM’s name on the operating system the press quickly identified Microsoft as being very influential on the new computer. PC Magazine asked if Gates were “the man behind the machine?”,[48] and InfoWorld quoted an expert as stating “it’s Gates’ computer”.[52] Gates oversaw Microsoft’s company restructuring on June 25, 1981, which re-incorporated the company in Washington state and made Gates the president of Microsoft and its board chairman.[44]

Microsoft launched its first retail version of Microsoft Windows on November 20, 1985, and in August, the company struck a deal with IBM to develop a separate operating system called OS/2. Although the two companies successfully developed the first version of the new system, mounting creative differences caused the partnership to deteriorate.[53]
Management style
Bill Gates in January 2008

From Microsoft’s founding in 1975 until 2006, Gates had primary responsibility for the company’s product strategy. He aggressively broadened the company’s range of products, and wherever Microsoft achieved a dominant position he vigorously defended it.[citation needed] He gained a reputation for being distant to others; as early as 1981 an industry executive complained in public that “Gates is notorious for not being reachable by phone and for not returning phone calls.”[54] Another executive recalled that after he showed Gates a game and defeated him 35 of 37 times, when they met again a month later Gates “won or tied every game. He had studied the game until he solved it. That is a competitor.”[55]
As an executive, Gates met regularly with Microsoft’s senior managers and program managers. Firsthand accounts of these meetings describe him as verbally combative, berating managers for perceived holes in their business strategies or proposals that placed the company’s long-term interests at risk.[56][57] He interrupted presentations with such comments “That’s the stupidest thing I’ve ever heard!”[58] and “Why don’t you just give up your options and join the Peace Corps?”[59] The target of his outburst then had to defend the proposal in detail until, hopefully, Gates was fully convinced.[58] When subordinates appeared to be procrastinating, he was known to remark sarcastically, “I’ll do it over the weekend.”[60][61][62]
Gates was an active software developer in Microsoft’s early history, particularly on the company’s programming language products, but his role most of its history was primarily as management and executive. Gates has not officially been on a development team since working on the TRS-80 Model 100,[63] but wrote code as late as 1989 that shipped in the company’s products.[61] He remained interested in technical details; Jerry Pournelle wrote in 1985 that when watching Gates announcing Microsoft Excel, “Something else impressed me. Bill Gates likes the program, not because it’s going to make him a lot of money (although I’m sure it will do that), but because it’s a neat hack.”[64] On June 15, 2006, Gates announced that he would transition out of his day-to-day role over the next two years to dedicate more time to philanthropy. He divided his responsibilities between two successors, placing Ray Ozzie in charge of day-to-day management and Craig Mundie in charge of long-term product strategy.[65]
Antitrust litigation

Further information: United States Microsoft antitrust case and European Union Microsoft competition case
Gates giving his deposition at Microsoft on August 27, 1998

Many decisions that led to antitrust litigation over Microsoft’s business practices have had Gates’ approval. In the 1998 United States v. Microsoft case, Gates gave deposition testimony that several journalists characterized as evasive. He argued with examiner David Boies over the contextual meaning of words such as, “compete”, “concerned”, and “we”. The judge and other observers in the court room were seen laughing at various points during the deposition.[66] BusinessWeek reported:
Early rounds of his deposition show him offering obfuscatory answers and saying ‘I don’t recall,’ so many times that even the presiding judge had to chuckle. Worse, many of the technology chief’s denials and pleas of ignorance were directly refuted by prosecutors with snippets of e-mail that Gates both sent and received.[67]
Gates later said he had simply resisted attempts by Boies to mischaracterize his words and actions. As to his demeanor during the deposition, he said, “Did I fence with Boies? … I plead guilty. Whatever that penalty is should be levied against me: rudeness to Boies in the first degree.”[68] Despite Gates’ denials, the judge ruled that Microsoft had committed monopolization and tying, and blocking competition, both in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act.[68]
Appearance in ads
Gates mugshot of his 1977 arrest for a traffic violation in Albuquerque, New Mexico

Gates appeared in a series of ads to promote Microsoft in 2008. The first commercial, co-starring Jerry Seinfeld, is a 90-second talk between strangers as Seinfeld walks up on a discount shoe store (Shoe Circus) in a mall and notices Gates buying shoes inside. The salesman is trying to sell Mr. Gates shoes that are a size too big. As Gates is buying the shoes, he holds up his discount card, which uses a slightly altered version of his own mugshot of his arrest in New Mexico in 1977, for a traffic violation.[69] As they are walking out of the mall, Seinfeld asks Gates if he has melded his mind to other developers, after getting a “Yes”, he then asks if they are working on a way to make computers edible, again getting a “Yes”. Some say that this is an homage to Seinfeld’s own show about “nothing” (Seinfeld).[70] In a second commercial in the series, Gates and Seinfeld are at the home of an average family trying to fit in with normal people.[71]
Since leaving day-to-day operations at Microsoft, Gates has continued his philanthropy and works on other projects.
According to the Bloomberg Billionaires Index, Gates was the world’s highest-earning billionaire in 2013, as his fortune increased by US$15.8 billion to US$78.5 billion. As of January 2014, most of Gates’ assets are held in Cascade Investment LLC, an entity through which he owns stakes in numerous businesses, including Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts, and Corbis Corp.[72] On February 4, 2014, Gates stepped down as chairman of Microsoft to become Technology Advisor alongside Satya Nadella.[16][73]
In a substantial interview with Rolling Stone magazine, published in March 27, 2014 issue, Gates provided his perspective on a range of issues, such as climate change, his charitable activities, various tech companies and people involved in them, and the state of America. In response to a question about his greatest fear when he looks 50 years into the future, Gates stated: “… there’ll be some really bad things that’ll happen in the next 50 or 100 years, but hopefully none of them on the scale of, say, a million people that you didn’t expect to die from a pandemic, or nuclear or bioterrorism.” Gates also identified innovation as the “real driver of progress” and pronounced that “America’s way better today than it’s ever been.”[74] Gate’s days are planned for him, similar to the US President’s schedule, on a minute-by-minute basis.[75]
Personal life

Bill and Melinda Gates in June 2009

Gates married Melinda French in Hawaii on January 1, 1994; he was 38 and she was 29. They have three children: Jennifer Katharine (born 1996), Rory John (born 1999), and Phoebe Adele (born 2002). The family resides in the Gates’ home, an earth-sheltered house in the side of a hill overlooking Lake Washington in Medina near Seattle in the state of Washington, United States. According to 2007 King County public records, the total assessed value of the property (land and house) is $125 million, and the annual property tax is $991,000. The 66,000 sq ft (6,100 m2) estate has a 60-foot (18 m) swimming pool with an underwater music system, as well as a 2,500 sq ft (230 m2) gym and a 1,000 sq ft (93 m2) dining room.[76]
In an interview with Rolling Stone, Gates stated in regard to his faith:
The moral systems of religion, I think, are super important. We’ve raised our kids in a religious way; they’ve gone to the Catholic church that Melinda goes to and I participate in. I’ve been very lucky, and therefore I owe it to try and reduce the inequity in the world. And that’s kind of a religious belief. I mean, it’s at least a moral belief.[77]
In the same interview, Gates said: “I agree with people like Richard Dawkins that mankind felt the need for creation myths. Before we really began to understand disease and the weather and things like that, we sought false explanations for them. Now science has filled in some of the realm – not all – that religion used to fill. But the mystery and the beauty of the world is overwhelmingly amazing, and there’s no scientific explanation of how it came about. To say that it was generated by random numbers, that does seem, you know, sort of an uncharitable view [laughs]. I think it makes sense to believe in God, but exactly what decision in your life you make differently because of it, I don’t know.”[77]
Among Gates’ private acquisitions is the Codex Leicester, a collection of writings by Leonardo da Vinci, which Gates bought for $30.8 million at an auction in 1994.[78] Gates is also known as an avid reader, and the ceiling of his large home library is engraved with a quotation from The Great Gatsby.[79] He also enjoys playing bridge, tennis, and golf.[80][81]
Gates was number one on the Forbes 400 list from 1993 through to 2007, and number one on Forbes list of The World’s Richest People from 1995 to 2007 and 2009. In 1999, his wealth briefly surpassed $101 billion, causing the media to call Gates a “centibillionaire”.[82] Despite his wealth and extensive business travel Gates usually flew coach until 1997, when he bought a private jet.[83] Since 2000, the nominal value of his Microsoft holdings has declined due to a fall in Microsoft’s stock price after the dot-com bubble burst and the multibillion-dollar donations he has made to his charitable foundations. In a May 2006 interview, Gates commented that he wished that he were not the richest man in the world because he disliked the attention it brought.[84] In March 2010, Gates was the second wealthiest person behind Carlos Slim, but regained the top position in 2013, according to the Bloomberg Billionaires List.[85][86] Carlos Slim retook the position again in June 2014[87][88] (but then lost the top position back to Gates).
Gates has several investments outside Microsoft, which in 2006 paid him a salary of $616,667 and $350,000 bonus totalling $966,667.[89] He founded Corbis, a digital imaging company, in 1989. In 2004, he became a director of Berkshire Hathaway, the investment company headed by long-time friend Warren Buffett.[90] In 2016 he revealed that he was color-blind when discussing his gaming habits.[91]
Gates with Bono, Queen Rania of Jordan, former British Prime Minister Gordon Brown, President Umaru Yar’Adua of Nigeria and others during the Annual Meeting 2008 of the World Economic Forum in Switzerland

Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

Main article: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Gates studied the work of Andrew Carnegie and John D. Rockefeller, and in 1994, sold some of his Microsoft stock to create the “William H. Gates Foundation.” In 2000, Gates and his wife combined three family foundations to create the charitable Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, which was identified by the Funds for NGOs company in 2013, as the world’s wealthiest charitable foundation, with assets reportedly valued at more than $34.6 billion.[92][93] The Foundation allows benefactors to access information that shows how its money is being spent, unlike other major charitable organizations such as the Wellcome Trust.[94][95]
The foundation is organized into four program areas: Global Development Division, Global Health Division, United States Division, and Global Policy & Advocacy Division.[96]
Gates has credited the generosity and extensive philanthropy of David Rockefeller as a major influence. Gates and his father met with Rockefeller several times, and their charity work is partly modeled on the Rockefeller family’s philanthropic focus, whereby they are interested in tackling the global problems that are ignored by governments and other organizations.[97] As of 2007, Bill and Melinda Gates were the second-most generous philanthropists in America, having given over $28 billion to charity;[98] the couple plan to eventually donate 95 percent of their wealth to charity.[99]
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation supports the use of genetically modified organisms in agricultural development. Specifically, the foundation is supporting the International Rice Research Institute in developing Golden Rice, a genetically modified rice variant used to combat Vitamin A deficiency.[100]

Melinda Gates suggested that people should emulate the philanthropic efforts of the Salwen family, which had sold its home and given away half of its value, as detailed in The Power of Half.[101] Gates and his wife invited Joan Salwen to Seattle to speak about what the family had done, and on December 9, 2010, Gates, investor Warren Buffett, and Facebook founder and CEO Mark Zuckerberg signed a commitment they called the “Gates-Buffet Giving Pledge.” The pledge is a commitment by all three to donate at least half of their wealth over the course of time to charity.[102][103][104]
Gates has recently expressed concern about the existential threats of superintelligence; in a Reddit “ask me anything”, he stated that
First the machines will do a lot of jobs for us and not be super intelligent. That should be positive if we manage it well. A few decades after that though the intelligence is strong enough to be a concern. I agree with Elon Musk and some others on this and don’t understand why some people are not concerned.[105][106][107][108]
In a March 2015 interview, with Baidu’s CEO, Robin Li, Gates claimed he would “highly recommend” Nick Bostrom’s recent work, Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies.[109]
Gates has also provided personal donations to educational institutions. In 1999, Gates donated $20 million to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for the construction of a computer laboratory named the “William H. Gates Building” that was designed by architect Frank O. Gehry. While Microsoft had previously given financial support to the institution, this was the first personal donation received from Gates.[110]
The Maxwell Dworkin Laboratory of the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences is named after the mothers of both Gates and Microsoft President Steven A. Ballmer, both of whom were students (Ballmer was a member of the School’s graduating class of 1977, while Gates left his studies for Microsoft), and donated funds for the laboratory’s construction.[111] Gates also donated $6 million to the construction of the Gates Computer Science Building, completed in January 1996, on the campus of Stanford University. The building contains the Computer Science Department (CSD) and the Computer Systems Laboratory (CSL) of Stanford’s Engineering department.[112]
On August 15, 2014, Bill Gates posted a video of himself dumping a bucket of ice water on his head, after Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg challenged him to do so, in order to raise awareness for the disease ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).[113]
Bill Gates and his foundation are taking an interest in solving global sanitation problems since about 2005, for example by announcing the “Reinvent the Toilet Challenge” which has received considerable media interest.[114] To raise awareness for the topic of sanitation and possible solutions, Bill Gates drank water which was “produced from human feces” in 2014 – in fact it was produced from a sewage sludge treatment process called the Omni-processor.[115][116] In early 2015, he also appeared with Jimmy Fallon on The Tonight Show and challenged him to see if he could taste the difference between this reclaimed water or bottled water.[117]
Bill and Melinda Gates have said that they intend to leave their three children $10 million each as their inheritance. With only $30 million kept in the family, they appear to be on a course to give away about 99.96 percent of their wealth.[118]

In 2007, the Los Angeles Times criticized the foundation for investing its assets in companies which have been accused of worsening poverty, polluting heavily, and pharmaceutical companies that do not sell into the developing world.[119] In response to press criticism, the foundation announced a review of its investments to assess social responsibility.[120] It subsequently canceled the review and stood by its policy of investing for maximum return, while using voting rights to influence company practices.[121] The Gates Millennium Scholars program has been criticized by Ernest W. Lefever for its exclusion of Caucasian students.[122] The scholarship program is administered by the United Negro College Fund.[123] In 2014, Bill Gates sparked a protest in Vancouver when he decided to donate 50 million dollars to UNAIDS through the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for the purpose of mass circumcision in Zambia and Swaziland.[124][125]
Gates and Steve Jobs at the fifth D: All Things Digital conference (D5) in 2007

In 1987, Gates was listed as a billionaire in Forbes magazine’s 400 Richest People in America issue, just days before his 32nd birthday. As the world’s youngest self-made billionaire, he was worth $1.25 billion, over $900 million more than he’d been worth the year before, when he’d debuted on the list.[126]
Time magazine named Gates one of the 100 people who most influenced the 20th century, as well as one of the 100 most influential people of 2004, 2005, and 2006. Time also collectively named Gates, his wife Melinda and U2’s lead singer Bono as the 2005 Persons of the Year for their humanitarian efforts.[127] In 2006, he was voted eighth in the list of “Heroes of our time”.[128] Gates was listed in the Sunday Times power list in 1999, named CEO of the year by Chief Executive Officers magazine in 1994, ranked number one in the “Top 50 Cyber Elite” by Time in 1998, ranked number two in the Upside Elite 100 in 1999, and was included in The Guardian as one of the “Top 100 influential people in media” in 2001.[129]
According to Forbes, Gates was ranked as the fourth most powerful person in the world in 2012,[130] up from fifth in 2011.[131]
In 1994, he was honored as the twentieth Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society. In 1999, Gates received New York Institute of Technology’s President’s Medal.[132] Gates has received honorary doctorates from Nyenrode Business Universiteit, Breukelen, The Netherlands, in 2000;[133] KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, in 2002;[134] Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, in 2005; Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in April 2007;[135] Harvard University in June 2007;[136] Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, in 2007,[137] and Cambridge University in June 2009.[138] He was also made an honorary trustee of Peking University in 2007.[139]
Gates was made an honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth II in 2005.[140] In November 2006, he was awarded the Placard of the Order of the Aztec Eagle, together with his wife Melinda who was awarded the Insignia of the same order, both for their philanthropic work around the world in the areas of health and education, particularly in Mexico, and specifically in the program “Un país de lectores”.[141] Gates received the 2010 Bower Award for Business Leadership from The Franklin Institute for his achievements at Microsoft and his philanthropic work.[142] Also in 2010, he was honored with the Silver Buffalo Award by the Boy Scouts of America, its highest award for adults, for his service to youth.[143]
Entomologists named Bill Gates’ flower fly, Eristalis gatesi, in his honor in 1997.[144]
In 2002, Bill and Melinda Gates received the Jefferson Award for Greatest Public Service Benefiting the Disadvantaged.[145]
In 2006, Gates received the James C. Morgan Global Humanitarian Award from The Tech Awards.[146]
In 2015, Gates, along with his wife Melinda, received the Padma Bhushan, India’s third-highest civilian award for their social work in the country.[147][148]
In 2016, President Barack Obama honored Gates and his wife Melinda with the Presidential Medal of Freedom for their philanthropic efforts.[149]
External business ventures and investments

Cascade Investments LLC, a private investment and holding company, incorporated in United States, is controlled by Bill Gates, and is headquartered in the city of Kirkland, Washington.

bgC3, a new think-tank company founded by Bill Gates.

Corbis, a digital image licensing and rights services company.

TerraPower, a nuclear reactor design company.

ResearchGate, a social networking site for scientists. Gates participated in a $35 million round of financing along with other investors.[150]


Facebook is an American for-profit corporation and online social media and social networking service based in Menlo Park, California, United States. The Facebook website was launched on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates, Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes.[7][8][9]
The founders had initially limited the website’s membership to Harvard students; however, later they expanded it to higher education institutions in the Boston area, the Ivy League schools, and Stanford University. Facebook gradually added support for students at various other universities, and eventually to high school students as well. Since 2006, anyone age 13 and older has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in the minimum age requirement, depending on applicable local laws.[10] The Facebook name comes from the face book directories often given to United States university students.[11]
Facebook may be accessed by a large range of desktops, laptops, tablet computers, and smartphones over the Internet and mobile networks. After registering to use the site, users can create a user profile indicating their name, occupation, schools attended and so on. Users can add other users as “friends”, exchange messages, post status updates and digital photos, share digital videos and links, use various software applications (“apps”), and receive notifications when others update their profiles or make posts. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups organized by workplace, school, hobbies or other topics, and categorize their friends into lists such as “People From Work” or “Close Friends”. In groups, editors can pin posts to top. Additionally, users can complain about or block unpleasant people. Because of the large volume of data that users submit to the service, Facebook has come under scrutiny for its privacy policies. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements which appear onscreen.
Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering (IPO) in February 2012, and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching an original peak market capitalization of $104 billion. On July 13, 2015, Facebook became the fastest company in the Standard & Poor’s 500 Index to reach a market cap of $250 billion.[12] Facebook has more than 1.65 billion monthly active users as of March 31, 2016.[13] As of April 2016, Facebook was the most popular social networking site in the world, based on the number of active user accounts.[14] Facebook classifies users from the ages of 13 to 18 as minors and therefore sets their profiles to share content with friends only.[15]


WhatsApp, was incorporated in 2009 by Brian Acton and Jan Koum, both former employees of Yahoo!. After Koum and Acton left Yahoo! in September 2007, the duo traveled to South America as a break from work.[15] At one point they applied for jobs at Facebook but were rejected.[15] For the rest of the following years Koum relied on his $400,000 savings from Yahoo!. In January 2009, after purchasing an iPhone and realizing that the App Store would soon create an industry of apps, Koum started visiting his friend Alex Fishman in West San Jose where the three would discuss “… having statuses next to individual names of the people”, but this was not possible without an iPhone developer. Fishman found a Russian developer on, Igor Solomennikov, and introduced him to Koum. Koum named the app “WhatsApp” to sound like “what’s up”. On February 24, 2009, he incorporated WhatsApp Inc. in California. However, because early versions of WhatsApp often crashed or got stuck at a particular point, Koum felt like giving up and looking for a new job, upon which Acton encouraged him to wait for a “few more months”.[15]
In June 2009, Apple launched push notifications, allowing users to be pinged when they were not using an app. Koum changed WhatsApp so that when a user’s status is changed, everyone in the user’s network would be notified.[15] WhatsApp 2.0 was released with a messaging component and the number of active users suddenly increased to 250,000. Acton was still unemployed and managing another startup, and he decided to join the company.[15] In October 2009, Acton persuaded five former friends in Yahoo! to invest $250,000 in seed funding, and Acton became a co-founder and was given a stake. He officially joined on November 1.[15] After months at beta stage, the application eventually launched in November 2009 exclusively on the App Store for the iPhone. Koum then hired a friend who lived in Los Angeles, Chris Peiffer, to develop the BlackBerry version, which arrived two months later.[15]
WhatsApp was switched from a free to paid service to avoid growing too fast, mainly because the primary cost was sending verification texts to users. In December 2009, the ability to send photos was added to WhatsApp for the iPhone. By early 2011, WhatsApp was one of the top 20 apps in Apple’s U.S. App Store.[15]
In April 2011, Sequoia Capital was the only venture investor in WhatsApp and paid approximately $8 million for more than 15 percent of the company, after months of negotiation with Sequoia partner Jim Goetz.[16][17][18]
By February 2013, WhatsApp had about 200 million active users and 50 staff members. Sequoia invested another $50 million, and WhatsApp was valued at $1.5 billion.[15]
In a December 2013 blog post, WhatsApp claimed that 400 million active users use the service each month.[19] As of April 22, 2014, WhatsApp had over 500 million monthly active users, 700 million photos and 100 million videos were being shared daily, and the messaging system was handling more than 10 billion messages each day.[20] On August 24, 2014, Koum announced on his Twitter account that WhatsApp had over 600 million active users worldwide. At that point WhatsApp was adding about 25 million new users every month, or 833,000 active users per day.[21][22] With 65 million active users representing 10% of the total worldwide users, India has the largest number of consumers.[23]
Facebook era (2014–present) Edit

On February 19, 2014, months after a venture capital financing round at a $1.5 billion valuation,[24] Facebook announced it was acquiring WhatsApp for US$19 billion, its largest acquisition to date.[11] At the time, the acquisition was the largest purchase of a venture-backed company in history. Sequoia Capital received an approximate 50x return on its initial investment.[25] Facebook, which was advised by Allen & Co, paid $4 billion in cash, $12 billion in Facebook shares, and an additional $3 billion in restricted stock units granted to WhatsApp’s founders (advised by Morgan Stanley), Koum and Acton.[26] Employee stock was scheduled to vest over four years subsequent to closing.[11] The transaction was the largest purchase of a company backed by venture capitalists to date.[10] Days after the announcement, WhatsApp users experienced a loss of service, leading to anger across social media.[27]
The acquisition caused a considerable number of users to move, or try out other message services as well. Telegram claimed to have seen 8 million additional downloads of its app.[28] Line claimed to have seen 2 million new users for its service.[29]
At a keynote presentation at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona in February 2014, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg said that Facebook’s acquisition of WhatsApp was closely related to the vision.[30][31] According to a TechCrunch article, Zuckerberg’s vision for was as follows: “The idea, he said, is to develop a group of basic internet services that would be free of charge to use – ‘a 911 for the internet.’ These could be a social networking service like Facebook, a messaging service, maybe search and other things like weather. Providing a bundle of these free of charge to users will work like a gateway drug of sorts – users who may be able to afford data services and phones these days just don’t see the point of why they would pay for those data services. This would give them some context for why they are important, and that will lead them to paying for more services like this – or so the hope goes.”[30]
On May 9, 2014, the government of Iran announced that it had proposed to block the access to WhatsApp service to Iranian residents. “The reason for this is the assumption of WhatsApp by the Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, who is an American Zionist,” said Abdolsamad Khorramabadi, head of the country’s Committee on Internet Crimes. Subsequently Iranian president Hassan Rouhani issued an order to the Ministry of ICT to stop filtering WhatsApp.[32][33]
Just three days after announcing that WhatsApp had been purchased by Facebook, Koum said they were working to introduce voice calls in the coming months. He also advanced that new mobile phones would be sold in Germany with the WhatsApp brand, as their main goal was to be in all smartphones.[34]
In August 2014, WhatsApp was the most globally popular messaging app, with more than 600 million active users.[21] By early January 2015, WhatsApp had 700 million monthly active users with over 30 billion messages being sent every day.[35] In April 2015, Forbes predicted that between 2012 and 2018, the telecommunications industry will lose a combined total of $386 billion because of OTT services like WhatsApp and Skype.[36] That month, WhatsApp had over 800 million active users.[37][38] By September 2015, the user base had grown to 900 million,[39] and by February 2016 it had grown to one billion.[12]
As of November 30, 2015, the Android client for WhatsApp started making links to another messenger called Telegram unclickable and uncopyable.[40][41][42] This is an active block, as confirmed by multiple sources, rather than a bug,[42] and the Android source code which recognises Telegram URLs has been identified.[42] URLs with “telegram” as domain-name are targeted actively and explicitly – the word “telegram” appears in the code.[42] This functioning risks being considered anti-competitive,[40][41][42] and has not been explained by WhatsApp.
On January 18, 2016, WhatsApp’s founder Jan Koum announced that the service would no longer charge their users a $1 annual subscription fee in an effort to remove a barrier faced by some users who do not have a credit card to pay for the service.[43][44] He also explained that the app would not display any third party advertisement and instead would bring new features such as the ability to communicate with business organizations.[12][45]
By June 2016, more than 100 million voice calls are made per day on WhatsApp according to a post on the company’s blog.[46]
On November 10, 2016, WhatsApp has started rolling out two-step verification feature for users on Android beta. This feature will add more security to your account, officials said. After enabling this feature, users will also get an option to add their email address for further protection.[47]
Platform support Edit
After months at beta stage, the application eventually launched in November 2009 exclusively on the App Store for the iPhone. In January 2010, support for BlackBerry smartphones was added, and subsequently for Symbian OS in May 2010 and for Android OS in August 2010. In August 2011 a beta for Nokia’s non-smartphone OS Series 40 was added. A month later support for Windows Phone was added, followed by BlackBerry 10 in March 2013.[48] In April 2015, support for Samsung’s Tizen OS was added.[49] An unofficial port has been released for the MeeGo-based Nokia N9 called Wazapp,[50] as well as a port for the Maemo-based Nokia N900 called Yappari.[51]
The oldest device capable of running WhatsApp is the Symbian-based Nokia N95 released in March 2007.
In August 2014, WhatsApp released an update to its Android app, adding support for Android Wear smartwatches.[52]
In 2014 an unofficial open source plug-in called whatsapp-purple was released for Pidgin, implementing its XMPP and making it possible to use WhatsApp on a Windows or Linux PC.[53][third-party source needed] WhatsApp responded by automatically blocking phone numbers that connected to WhatsApp using this plug-in.[citation needed]
On January 21, 2015, WhatsApp launched WhatsApp Web, a web client which can be used through a web browser by syncing with the mobile device’s connection.[54]
On February 26, 2016, WhatsApp announced they would cease support for BlackBerry (including BlackBerry 10), Series 40 and Symbian, as well as some older versions of Android, Windows Phone and iOS, by the end of 2016.[55] This has since been extended to June 30, 2017. [56]
WhatsApp Web Edit

WhatsApp was officially made available for PCs through a web client, under the name WhatsApp Web, in late January 2015 through an announcement made by Koum on his Facebook page: “Our web client is simply an extension of your phone: the web browser mirrors conversations and messages from your mobile device—this means all of your messages still live on your phone”. The WhatsApp user’s handset must still be connected to the Internet for the browser application to function. All major desktop browsers are supported except for Microsoft Internet Explorer. WhatsApp Web’s user interface is based on the default Android one.
As of January 21, 2015, the desktop version was only available to Android, BlackBerry and Windows Phone users. Later on, it also added support for iOS, Nokia Series 40, and Nokia S60 (Symbian).[57][58]
An unofficial derivative called WhatsAppTime has been developed, which is a standard Win32 application for PCs and supports notifications through the Windows notification area.[59] There are similar solutions for Mac OS X, such as the open-source ChitChat[60][61][62] and multiple wrappers available in the App Store.[citation needed]
Windows and Mac Edit

On May 10, 2016, the messaging service was introduced for both Windows and macOS operating systems. Similar to the WhatsApp Web format, the app, which will be synced with a user’s mobile device, is available for download on the website. It supports OS versions of Windows 8 and OS X 10.9 and higher.[63][64]
Technical Edit
WhatsApp uses a customized version of the open standard Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP).[65] Upon installation, it creates a user account using one’s phone number as the username (Jabber ID: [phone number]
WhatsApp software automatically compares all the phone numbers from the device’s address book with its central database of WhatsApp users to automatically add contacts to the user’s WhatsApp contact list. Previously the Android and Nokia Series 40 versions used an MD5-hashed, reversed-version of the phone’s IMEI as password,[66] while the iOS version used the phone’s Wi-Fi MAC address instead of IMEI.[67][68] A 2012 update now generates a random password on the server side.[69]
Some Dual SIM devices may not be compatible with WhatsApp, though there are some workarounds for this.[70]
In January 2015, WhatsApp introduced a voice calling feature; this helped WhatsApp to attract a completely different segment of the user population.[71] On November 14, 2016, Whatsapp added video calling feature for users across Android, iPhone, and Windows Phone devices.[72][73]
Multimedia messages are sent by uploading the image, audio or video to be sent to an HTTP server and then sending a link to the content along with its Base64 encoded thumbnail (if applicable).[74]
WhatsApp follows a ‘store and forward’ mechanism for exchanging messages between two users. When a user sends a message, it first travels to the WhatsApp server where it is stored. Then the server repeatedly requests the receiver acknowledge receipt of the message. As soon as the message is acknowledged, the server drops the message; it is no longer available in database of server. WhatsApp server keeps the message only for 30 days in its database when it is not delivered (when the receiver is not active on WhatsApp for 30 days).[75][self-published source?]
End-to-end encryption Edit

On November 18, 2014, Open Whisper Systems announced a partnership with WhatsApp to provide end-to-end encryption by incorporating the encryption protocol used in Signal into each WhatsApp client platform.[76] Open Whisper Systems said that they had already incorporated the protocol into the latest WhatsApp client for Android, and that support for other clients, group/media messages, and key verification would be coming soon after.[77] WhatsApp confirmed the partnership to reporters, but there was no announcement or documentation about the encryption feature on the official website, and further requests for comment were declined.[78] In April 2015, German magazine Heise Security used ARP spoofing to confirm that the protocol had been implemented for Android-to-Android messages, and that WhatsApp messages from or to iPhones running iOS were still not end-to-end encrypted.[79] They expressed the concern that regular WhatsApp users still could not tell the difference between end-to-end encrypted messages and regular messages.[79] On April 5, 2016, WhatsApp and Open Whisper Systems announced that they had finished adding end-to-end encryption to “every form of communication” on WhatsApp, and that users could now verify each other’s keys.[13][80] Users were also given the option to enable a trust on first use mechanism in order to be notified if a correspondent’s key changes.[81] According to a white paper that was released along with the announcement, WhatsApp messages are encrypted with the Signal Protocol.[82] WhatsApp calls are encrypted with SRTP, and all client-server communications are “layered within a separate encrypted channel”.[82] The Signal Protocol library used by WhatsApp is open-source and published under the GPLv3 license.[82][83]
Cade Metz, writing in Wired, said “WhatsApp, more than any company before it, has taken encryption to the masses.”[7]
Security concerns Edit
On May 20, 2011, an unconfirmed security researcher from the Netherlands under the pseudonym “WhatsappHack” published, to the Dutch websites and GeenStijl, a method by which WhatsApp accounts could be hijacked. The researcher noticed a flaw in the authentication process, which allowed the researcher to hijack an account by trying to login with another phone number and intercepting the verification SMS text message that, under specific conditions, remained in the outbox of the Symbian phone after the WhatsApp client would attempt to send it to itself. On Android, the verification message could be obtained through reading the “radio” with a tool named “logcat”. The researcher would then copy and send the intercepted verification message to the real number of the phone, using an SMS gateway to spoof the “sender” phone number to the number the researcher tried to maliciously login with. This method worked, and WhatsApp issued a patch within one day after publication of the articles, to both the Android and Symbian clients. WhatsApp did have a security mechanism, by design, which would disable the account on the phone of the original owner of the phone number, when they had a WhatsApp account.[84][85][86]
In May 2011, another security hole was reported which left communication through WhatsApp susceptible to packet analysis. WhatsApp communications were not encrypted, and data was sent and received in plaintext, meaning messages could easily be read if packet traces were available.[87]
In May 2012 security researchers noticed that new updates of WhatsApp no longer sent messages as plaintext,[88][89][90] but the cryptographic method implemented was subsequently described as “broken”.[91][92] In August 2012 the WhatsApp support staff said that messages were encrypted in the “latest version” of the WhatsApp software for iOS and Android (but not BlackBerry, Windows Phone, and Symbian), without specifying the cryptographic method.[93]
On January 6, 2012, an unknown hacker published a website that made it possible to change the status of an arbitrary WhatsApp user, as long as the phone number was known. To make it work, it only required a restart of the app. According to the hacker, it was only one of many security problems in WhatsApp. On January 9, WhatsApp reported that it had resolved the problem, although the only measure actually taken was to block the website’s IP address. As a reaction, a Windows tool was made available for download providing the same functionality. This problem has since been resolved in the form of an IP address check on currently logged-in sessions.[94][95]
German Tech site The H demonstrated how to use WhatsAPI to hijack any WhatsApp account on September 14, 2012.[96] Shortly after, a legal threat to WhatsAPI’s developers was alleged, characterized by The H as “an apparent reaction” to security reports, and WhatsAPI’s source code was taken down for some days.[97] The WhatsAPI team has since returned to active development.[98]
On December 1, 2014, Indrajeet Bhuyan and Saurav Kar, both 17-years old, demonstrated the WhatsApp Message Handler Vulnerability, which allows anyone to remotely crash WhatsApp just by sending a specially crafted message of 2kb in size. To escape the problem, the user who receives the specially crafted message has to delete his/her whole conversation and start a fresh chat, because opening the message keeps on crashing WhatsApp unless the chat is deleted completely.[99] In early 2015, after WhatsApp launched a web client that can be used from the browser, Bhuyan also found that it had two security issues that compromised user privacy: the WhatsApp Photo Privacy Bug and the WhatsApp Web Photo Sync Bug.[100][101]
On March 2, 2016, WhatsApp introduced its document-sharing feature, initially allowing users to share PDF files with their contacts.[102] However, WhatsApp’s default state of automatically downloading attachments raised some concerns in the press about risk and security once support for document sharing expanded beyond PDF files.[103]
Privacy concerns Edit
A major privacy and security problem has been the subject of a joint Canadian-Dutch government investigation. The primary concern was that WhatsApp required users to upload their mobile phone’s entire address book to WhatsApp servers so that WhatsApp could discover who, among the users’ contacts, was available via WhatsApp. While this was a fast and convenient way to quickly find and connect the user with contacts who were also using WhatsApp, it meant that their address book was then mirrored on the WhatsApp servers, including contact information for contacts who were not using WhatsApp. This information, which consisted solely of phone numbers without any additional information such as the name of the contact, was stored in hashed, though not salted, form.[104][105][106][107] Late 2015, the Dutch government released a press-statement claiming that WhatsApp had changed its hashing method, making it much harder to reverse, and thus now fully complies with all rules and regulations.[108]
A user does not need to send a friend request to send messages to another user, due to the contact discovery mentioned above.[citation needed]
In November 2014, WhatsApp introduced a feature named Read Receipts which alerts senders when their messages are read by recipients. Within a week, WhatsApp introduced an update allowing users to disable this feature so that message recipients do not send acknowledgements.[109]
In February 2015, a Dutch university student named Maikel Zweerink published an app that set out to prove that anyone could track a WhatsApp user’s status and also keep an eye of their changing profile pictures, privacy settings or status messages regardless of their privacy settings.[110]
In August 2016, WhatsApp announced that it will start sharing account information with Facebook, consisting of the phone number of the account owner and aggregated analytical data. The address books and metadata of users are not shared. According to WhatsApp, this account information is shared to “track basic metrics about how often people use our services and better fight spam on WhatsApp. And by connecting your phone number with Facebook’s systems, Facebook can offer better friend suggestions and show you more relevant ads if you have an account with them.”. This means that Facebook can target advertisements on the Facebook Platform better by making links between users based on the phone numbers, and make “friend suggestions” to its users based on WhatsApp’s data. User data will not be shared with advertisers, and is only used internally on the Facebook services. WhatsApp emphasizes the content of user messages is still kept private thanks to its end-to-end encryption, which means WhatsApp cannot read the content of chats.[111][112] However, users are given the choice to opt-out of sharing this data with Facebook for advertisement purposes.[113] In October 2016, Article 29 Working Party stated that it has serious concerns regarding the manner in which the information relating to the updated Terms of Service and Privacy Policy was provided to users and consequently about the validity of the users’ consent.[114]
Reception Edit
Security and privacy Edit

On March 31, 2013 the Saudi Arabian Communications and Information Technology Commission (CITC) issued a statement regarding possible measures against WhatsApp, among other applications, unless the service providers took serious steps to comply with monitoring and privacy regulations.[115][needs update]
In February 2014, the public authority for data privacy of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein advised against using WhatsApp, as the service lacked privacy protection such as end-to-end client side encryption technology.[116] WhatsApp started implementing end-to-end encryption in late 2014 and finished in April 2016.[13]
From April 5, 2016, end-to-end encryption for all users’ communications, including file transfers and voice calls, is supported for users of the latest client, encryption being enabled by default. It uses Curve25519 for key exchange, HKDF for generation of session keys (AES-256 in CBC mode for encryption and HMAC-SHA256 for integrity verification) and SHA512 for generating the two 30 digit finger prints of both users’ identity keys so they can verify each other as needed. Even the company would be unable to decrypt users’ communications. Amnesty International and security professionals praised the move; the US Federal Bureau of Investigation criticised it as threatening the work of law enforcement.[117] Telegram, another messaging service, is reported by the BBC to be used by “Islamic State” extremists.[117]
WhatsApp is not the only messaging service that provides end-to-end encryption; among others, Threema, Wickr, Signal, Silent Phone, and Line also provide such encryption by default. iMessage and Viber provide it under special circumstances.[118][119] Telegram provides end-to-end encryption as an opt-in feature, but does not support end-to-end encrypted group messaging.[13]
As of April 5, 2016, WhatsApp has a score of 6 out of 7 points on the Electronic Frontier Foundation’s “Secure Messaging Scorecard”. It has received points for having communications encrypted in transit, having communications encrypted with keys the provider doesn’t have access to, allowing users to verify contacts’ identities, having past messages secure if the encryption keys are stolen, having completed a recent independent security audit, and having the security designs properly documented. It is missing a point because the code is not open to independent review.[120]
Brazilian court orders Edit

On December 17, 2015, mobile providers in Brazil were ordered to block WhatsApp for 48 hours. The ban was ordered for the service’s failure to cooperate with criminal court orders in July and August 2015. The following morning, however, a judge from the appeals court ordered that the ban be lifted for being an unreasonable response, recommending that the company be fined instead. Following the ban, but prior to its reversal, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg responded by stating that he was “stunned that our efforts to protect people’s data would result in such an extreme decision by a single judge to punish every person in Brazil who uses WhatsApp. We hope the Brazilian courts quickly reverse course.” The competing service Telegram reported that 1.5 million Brazilians had downloaded its app while the WhatsApp ban was in place.[121][122]
On March 1, 2016, Diego Dzodan, Facebook’s vice-president for Latin America was arrested in Brazil for not cooperating with an investigation in which WhatsApp conversations were requested.[123] On March 2, 2016, at dawn the next day, Dzodan was released because the Court of Appeal held that the arrest was disproportionate and unreasonable.[124]
On May 2, 2016, mobile providers in Brazil were ordered to block WhatsApp for 72 hours for the service’s second failure to cooperate with criminal court orders.[125][126] Once again, the block was lifted following an appeal, after nearly 24 hours.[127]
Business model Edit

In response to the Facebook acquisition in 2014, Slate columnist Matthew Yglesias questioned whether the company’s business model of charging users $1 a year was viable in the United States in the long term. It had prospered by exploiting a “loophole” in mobile phone carriers’ pricing. “Mobile phone operators aren’t really selling consumers some voice service, some data service, and some SMS service”, he explained. “They are selling access to the network. The different pricing schemes they come up with are just different ways of trying to maximize the value they extract from consumers.”[128] As part of that, carriers sold SMS separately. That made it easy for WhatsApp to find a way to replicate SMS using data, and then sell that to mobile customers for $1 a year. “But if WhatsApp gets big enough, then carrier strategy is going to change”, he predicted. “You stop selling separate SMS plans and just have a take-it-or-leave-it overall package. And then suddenly WhatsApp isn’t doing anything.”[128] The situation may have been different in countries other than the United States.
On January 18, 2016, WhatsApp’s founder Jan Koum announced that the service would no longer charge their users a $1 annual subscription fee in an effort to remove a barrier faced by some users who do not have a credit card to pay for the service.[43][44] He also explained that the app would not display any third party advertisement and instead would bring new features such as the ability to communicate with business organizations.[12][45]
Competition and shares Edit

Competing with a number of Asian-based messaging services (like WeChat (468 million active users), Viber (209 million active users[129]) and LINE (170 million active users[130])), WhatsApp handled ten billion messages per day in August 2012,[131] growing from two billion in April 2012,[132] and one billion the previous October.[133] On June 13, 2013, WhatsApp announced that they had reached their new daily record by processing 27 billion messages.[134] According to the Financial Times, WhatsApp “has done to SMS on mobile phones what Skype did to international calling on landlines.”[135]
In April 2014, WhatsApp crossed half-a-billion user mark.[136]
In May 2014, WhatsApp crossed 50 million monthly active users in India, which is also its largest country by the number of monthly active users.[137]
In October 2014, WhatsApp crossed 70 million monthly active users in India, which is 10% of its total user base (700 MM).[138]
As of February 2016, WhatsApp has over 1 billion users globally.[139]
WhatsApp related scams Edit


WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.[5] WordPress is installed on a web server that is either part of an Internet hosting service or a network host in its own right. The first case may be a service like, for example, and the second case could be a computer running the software package[6] A local computer may be used for single-user testing and learning purposes. Features include a plugin architecture and a template system. WordPress was used by more than 26.4% of the top 10 million websites as of April 2016.[7] WordPress is reportedly the easiest and most popular website management or blogging system in use on the Web,[8] supporting more than 60 million websites.[9]
WordPress was released on May 27, 2003, by its founders, Matt Mullenweg[1] and Mike Little,[10] as a fork of b2/cafelog. WordPress is released under the GPLv2 (or later) license from the Free Software Foundation.[11]

WordPress users may install and switch between different themes. Themes allow users to change the look and functionality of a WordPress website and they can be installed without altering the content or health of the site. Every WordPress website requires at least one theme to be present and every theme should be designed using WordPress standards with structured PHP, valid HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). Themes may be directly installed using the WordPress “Appearance” administration tool in the dashboard or theme folders may be uploaded via FTP.[12] The PHP, HTML (HyperText Markup Language) and CSS code found in themes can be added to or edited for providing advanced features. WordPress themes are in general classified into two categories, free themes and premium themes. All the free themes are listed in the WordPress theme directory and premium themes are available for purchase from marketplaces and individual WordPress developers. WordPress users may also create and develop their own custom themes if they have the knowledge and skill to do so. Underscores has become a popular choice for WordPress advanced theme developers which is designed and maintained by the makers of WordPress themselves.[13] If WordPress users do not have sufficient theme development knowledge they may download and use free WordPress themes.
Plugins Edit

WordPress’ plugin architecture allows users to extend the features and functionality of a website or blog. WordPress has over 40,501 plugins available,[14] each of which offers custom functions and features enabling users to tailor their sites to their specific needs. These customizations range from search engine optimization, to client portals used to display private information to logged in users, to content management systems,[15] to content displaying features, such as the addition of widgets and navigation bars. Not all available plugins are always abreast with the upgrades and as a result they may not function properly or may not function at all.[16]
Mobiles Edit

Native applications exist for WebOS,[17] Android,[18] iOS (iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad),[19][20] Windows Phone, and BlackBerry.[21] These applications, designed by Automattic, allow a limited set of options, which include adding new blog posts and pages, commenting, moderating comments, replying to comments in addition to the ability to view the stats.[19][20]
Other features Edit

WordPress also features integrated link management; a search engine–friendly, clean permalink structure; the ability to assign multiple categories to articles; and support for tagging of posts and articles. Automatic filters are also included, providing standardized formatting and styling of text in articles (for example, converting regular quotes to smart quotes). WordPress also supports the Trackback and Pingback standards for displaying links to other sites that have themselves linked to a post or an article. WordPress blog posts can be edited in HTML, using the visual editor, or using one of a number of plugins that allow for a variety of customized editing features.
Multi-user and multi-blogging Edit
Prior to version 3, WordPress supported one blog per installation, although multiple concurrent copies may be run from different directories if configured to use separate database tables. WordPress Multisites[22] (previously referred to as WordPress Multi-User, WordPress MU, or WPMU) was a fork of WordPress created to allow multiple blogs to exist within one installation but is able to be administered by a centralized maintainer. WordPress MU makes it possible for those with websites to host their own blogging communities, as well as control and moderate all the blogs from a single dashboard. WordPress MS adds eight new data tables for each blog.
As of the release of WordPress 3, WordPress MU has merged with WordPress.[23]
History Edit
b2/cafelog, more commonly known as b2 or cafelog, was the precursor to WordPress.[24] b2/cafelog was estimated to have been installed on approximately 2,000 blogs as of May 2003.[25] It was written in PHP for use with MySQL by Michel Valdrighi, who is now a contributing developer to WordPress. Although WordPress is the official successor, another project, b2evolution, is also in active development.
WordPress first appeared in 2003 as a joint effort between Matt Mullenweg and Mike Little to create a fork of b2.[26] Christine Selleck Tremoulet, a friend of Mullenweg, suggested the name WordPress.[27][28]
In 2004 the licensing terms for the competing Movable Type package were changed by Six Apart, resulting in many of its most influential users migrating to WordPress.[29][30] By October 2009 the Open Source CMS MarketShare Report concluded that WordPress enjoyed the greatest brand strength of any open-source content management system.
As of January 2015, more than 23.3% of the top 10 million websites now use WordPress.[31] As of February 2016, WordPress is used by 59.1% of all the websites whose content management system we know. This is 25.8% of all websites.[32]


The Lamborghini Aventador is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian manufacturer Lamborghini.
Launched on 28 February 2011 at the Geneva Motor Show, five months after its initial unveiling in Sant’Agata Bolognese, the vehicle, internally codenamed LB834, was designed to replace the then-decade-old Murciélago as the new flagship model.[5][6][7]

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Soon after the Aventador unveiling, Lamborghini announced that it had already sold over 12 of the production vehicles, with deliveries starting in the second half of 2011.[8] By March 2016, Lamborghini had already built 5,000 Aventadors, taking five years to achieve this milestone.[9]

Production of the Aventador was planned to be limited to 4,000 vehicles (4,099 Murciélagos were built); however, in 2016, it achieved the 5,000 unit milestone. The molds used to make the carbon-fibre monocoque are expected to last 500 molds each and only 8 have been made. The base price of the Aventador is US$393,695.[13]

The car’s shape borrows heavily from Lamborghini’s limited-edition Reventón and their Estoque concept car.
The vehicle was unveiled at Lummus Park, Miami, followed by Miami International Airport,[14] followed by Auto China 2014 (with Nazionale configuration via Lamborghini Ad Personam personalization program).[15]
The Lamborghini Aventador starred in Transformers: Age of Extinction as Lockdown, the film’s main antagonist.

Mercedes-Benz S-Class

The Mercedes-Benz S-Class, formerly known as Sonderklasse (German for “special class”, abbreviated as “S-Klasse”), is a series of flagship vehicles produced by the German automaker Mercedes-Benz, a division of German company Daimler AG. The S-Class designation for top-of-the-line Mercedes-Benz models was officially introduced in 1972 with the W116, and has remained in use ever since.
The S-Class has debuted many of the company’s latest innovations, including drivetrain technologies, interior features, and safety systems (such as the first seatbelt pretensioners).[2] The S-Class has ranked as the world’s best-selling luxury sedan,[3] and its latest generation, the W222 S-Class, premiered in 2013. As in previous iterations, the W221 S-Class is sold in standard- and long-wheelbase versions; I4, V6, V8, V12, diesel and hybrid powertrains are offered. All models built in Mexico or sold in the United States are only available in long wheelbase.
In automotive terms, Sonderklasse refers to “a specially outfitted car.” Although used colloquially for decades,[citation needed] following its official application in 1972, six generations of officially named S-Klasse sedans have been produced. Previous two-door coupe models of the S-Class were known as SEC and later S-Coupe. In 1998 the S-Class coupe was spun off in a separate line as the CL-Class, however as of June 2014, it has been re-designated as the S-Class Coupé for the 2015 model year, doing away with the CL-Class. In 2016, the S-Class Cabriolet, code-named A217, was introduced with three variants: the S 550 Cabriolet, the Mercedes-AMG S 63 Cabriolet with 4Matic, and the Mercedes-AMG S 65 Cabriolet.[4] The Mercedes-Maybach S 650 Cabriolet, based on the S 65 Cabriolet, was announced in 2016.[5]
It has many rivals, primarily: -BMW 7 Series -Audi A8 -Jaguar XJ -Maserati Quattroporte -Lexus LS
And to a lesser extent: -Rolls-Royce Ghost -Bentley Continental Flying Spur